Singapore English

An Annotated Bibliography

Prepared by David Deterding, updated by Ng E-Ching

This bibliography is topic-specific and focuses mainly on structural topics (rather than political or sociolinguistic topics). It expands the annotated bibliography made by David Deterding, with his permission.

You may also wish to refer to Low Ee Ling's (2012) unannotated bibliography.


Books: General Overviews

Tongue, Ray K. (1979). The English of Singapore and Malaysia (2nd edition). Singapore: Eastern Universities Press.
This is the first substantial work on English in the region. It still makes lots of sense, even after all these years, and is still well worth reading.
Platt, John & Weber, Heidi (1980). English in Singapore and Malaysia: Status, features, functions. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
An important work that has had lots of influence over the years.
Brown, Adam (1992). Making sense of Singapore English. Singapore: Federal.
An invaluable list of the words and features that contribute to Singapore English. Now supplanted by Singapore English in a Nutshell.
Ho Mian-Lian & Platt, John T (1993). Dynamics of a contact continuum: Singaporean English. Oxford: Clarenden Press.
A detailed analysis of various issues connected with verb usage in Singapore, including the use of be and the acquisition of past tense.
Gupta, Anthea Fraser (1994). The step-tongue: Children's English in Singapore. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Based on Gupta's PhD thesis, this extremely influential book describes the development of diglossic English in young children in Singapore in some detail.
Brown, Adam (1999). Singapore English in a nutshell. Singapore: Federal.
The most comprehensive and authoritative collection of words and features that contribute to Singapore English. An essential reference work for anyone interested in Singapore English.
Brown, Adam (2003). English language myths: 30 beliefs that aren't really true. Singapore: McGraw-Hill.
A discussion of 30 misguided beliefs about English that are commonly found in Singapore. Provides well-documented evidence to demonstrate that they are indeed myths. Also see this online review.
Low, Ee Ling & Brown, Adam (2005). English in Singapore: An introduction. Singapore: McGraw-Hill.
An introductory textbook on the history, sociology, grammar and phonetics of Singapore English. Also very useful as a reference book, as it covers such a wide range of topics in some detail.
Deterding, David (2007) Singapore English, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
An overview of the pronunciation, grammar, lexis, discourse and history of Singapore English with substantial examples from the one-hour recording of a single speaker, the transcription of which is provided in the last chapter. (Overview)

Books: The English Language in Singapore (SAAL Series)

This series of small books published by the Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics provides a rich collection of papers on various aspects of Singapore English.

Tay, W. J. Mary (1993). The English language in Singapore: Issues and development. Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics.
A collection of the writings of Mary Tay from over the years, covering the status of English in Singapore. Most of the papers date from the early 1980's
Pakir, Anne (ed. 1993) The English language in Singapore: Standards and norms. Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics.
The papers presented at a 1992 conference on Singapore English.
Teng Su Ching & Ho Mian Lian (eds. 1995). The English language in Singapore: Implications for teaching. Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics.
The papers presented at a 1993 conference on Singapore English.
Abraham, Sunita A. & Hsui, Victoria Y. (eds. 1996). The English language in Singapore: Current perspectives on the teaching of writing. Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics.
The state of play in the mid 1990s with regard to the teaching of writing in Singapore.
Brown, Adam, Deterding, David & Low, Ee Ling (eds. 2000). The English language in Singapore: Research on pronunciation. Singapore: Singapore Association of Applied Linguistics.
The papers in this volume focus on the detailed phonetic description of data. It also includes a comprehensive bibliography on Singapore English pronunciation. (Overview)

Books: Collections of Papers

Crewe, William, ed. (1977). The English language in Singapore. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press.
The first collection of papers on Singapore English, with some classic early papers.
Foley, J. (ed. 1988). New Englishes: The case of Singapore. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
An early collection of papers on English in the region.
Gopinathan, S., Pakir, Anne, Ho Wah Kam & Saravanan, Vanithamani (eds. 1998). Language, Society and Education in Singapore, Singapore: Times Academic Press.
A collection of important articles about various facets of language use in Singapore.
Foley, J et al. (eds. 1998). English in new cultural contexts: Reflections from Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
It's a pity nobody took on the role of editing this volume, to ensure greater consistency between the papers. Nevertheless, it is a useful collection of papers on various aspects of language in Singapore.
Ooi, Vincent B. Y. (ed. 2001). Evolving identities: The English language in Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore: Times Academic Press.
A recent collection of papers on English in the region, some of which include valuable new data. For a review, see English World-Wide 23, 322-327.
Low, Ee Ling & Teng Su Ching (eds. 2002). The teaching and use of standard English. Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics.
The papers from a STU/SAAL colloquium held in May 2000.
Deterding, David, Low, Ee Ling & Brown, Adam (eds. 2003). English in Singapore: Research on Grammar, Singapore: McGraw-Hill.
Contains two kinds of paper: those reporting on research on the grammar of Singapore English; and those reporting on research into the teaching of grammar in Singapore. Also contains a comprehensive bibliography of works on grammar in Singapore. (More details, including online data.) For a review, see SAAL Quarterly No 64.
Lim, Lisa (ed. 2004). Singapore English: A grammatical description. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Despite the title, it contains chapters on pronunciation and the evolution of Singapore English as well as grammar. All chapters are based on a corpus collected at NUS, and it is a pity that this corpus is not made more widely available. For a review, see English World-Wide 27(1), 106-109.
Deterding, David, Brown, Adam & Low, Ee Ling (eds. 2005). English in Singapore: Phonetic research on a corpus. Singapore: McGraw-Hill.
Contains two kinds of paper: those reporting on research on the pronunciation of Singapore English; and those reporting on the intelligibility of Singapore English in other parts of the world. All the papers use the NIECSSE corpus, which is provided on a CD with the book. (More details, including online data.)


General Overviews

Low, Ee Ling (2012). Works on English in Southeast Asia. In E.L. Low & A. Hashim (eds.), English in Southeast Asia: Features, policy and language in use (pp. 357-382). Amsterdam; Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
An unannotated bibliography of key works on Southeast Asian Englishes, subdivided by countries (including Hong Kong), further subdivided by: linguistic features, language policy, and language in use.
Leimgruber, Jakob R. E. (2011). Singapore English Language and Linguistics Compass 5: 47-62. doi pdf
An introduction to Singapore English features and issues for linguists who have not previously worked on this variety.

Phonetic Overviews

Deterding, David & Poedjosoedarmo, Gloria (1998). The sounds of English: Phonetics and phonology for English teachers in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Prentice Hall.
Chapter 17 includes a summary of the features of Singapore English Pronunciation, including vowels, consonants, stress, rhythm and intonation.
Low, Ee Ling & Deterding, David (2002). Recent research into the pronunciation of Singapore English. In A. Kirkpatrick (ed.), Englishes in Asia: Communication, identity, power & education (pp. 179-190). Melbourne: Language Australia Ltd.
A summary of current phonetic knowledge about Singapore English derived from acoustic research, and a consideration of the relative importance of various pronunciation features for language teachers.
Wee, Lionel (2004). Singapore English: Phonology. In E. W. Schneider, K. Burridge, B. Kortmann, R. Mesthrie & C. Upton (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English. Volume 1: Phonology (pp. 10171033). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
A summary of the main features of pronunciation of Singapore English, in a volume that includes summaries or a wide range of different Englishes.

Grammar Overviews

Deterding, David & Poedjosoedarmo, Gloria (2001). The sounds of English: Phonetics and phonology for English teachers in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Prentice Hall.
Chapter 19 includes a summary of the features of the grammar of Singapore English, including verb forms, tags, relative clauses and discourse particles.
Wee, Lionel (2004). Singapore English: Morphology and syntax. In B. Kortmann, K. Burridge, R. Mesthrie, E. W. Schneider & C. Upton (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English. Volume 2: Morphology and syntax (pp. 1058-1072). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
A summary of the main features of the grammar of Singapore English, in a volume that includes summaries or a wide range of different Englishes.

Particle Overviews

Platt, John & Ho Mian Lian (1989). Discourse particles in Singaporean English: Substratum influences and universals. World Englishes 8(2): 215-221. doi
Analyses the particles in discourse terms, roughly equivalent to intonation in British English.
Gupta, Anthea Fraser (1992). The pragmatic particles of Singapore Colloquial English. Journal of Pragmatics 18: 31-57. doi
Discusses eleven separate particles, analysing them on a scale of assertiveness and tentativeness.
Lim, Lisa (2007). Mergers and acquisitions: On the ages and origins of Singapore English particles. World Englishes 26(4): 446-473. doi pdf
Compares probable substratal origins of the particles lah (low, rising), ah (low, rising), what, lor, hor, leh, meh and mah.


Papers on Phonetics

See also the Phonetics section of the index of NIE Academic Exercises. Adam Brown has also prepared a comprehensive bibiliography on the pronunciation of Singapore English in Chapter 14 of Brown et al (2000).

Tay, Wan Joo Mary (1982). The phonology of educated Singapore English. English World-Wide, 3: 135-145.
An early attempt to provide a description of the pronunciation of educated Singapore English. The observations were impressionistic, so they were not supported by any systematic analysis of data. Unfortunately, many of the observations are flawed, such as the claim that all questions in Singapore have a rising intonation. There is no evidence to support this.
Deterding, David (1994). The intonation of Singapore English. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 24(2): 61-72.
A description of Singapore English intonation based on the careful analysis of a small corpus of data.
Deterding, David & Low, Ee Ling (2001). The NIE Corpus of Spoken Singapore English (NIECSSE). SAAL Quarterly Nov 2001: 2-5. html
Provides an overview of this corpus of spoken data, which is designed to allow phonetic research on Singapore English. The corpus itself is available online.
Deterding, David (2003). An instrumental study of the monophthong vowels of Singapore English. English World-Wide, 24(1): 1-16. doi
A description of the distribution of vowels in Educated Singapore English based on the acoustic measurement of vowels found in the NIECSSE corpus.
Deterding, David (2005). Emergent patterns in the vowels of Singapore English. English World-Wide 26(2): 179-196. doi
A further investigation of the idiosyncratic vowel patterns found in Singapore, showing for example that egg rhymes with vague and not with peg.
Gut, Ulrike (2007). First language influence and final consonant clusters in the new Englishes of Singapore and Nigeria. World Englishes 26(3): 346-359. doi
Looks at preferred reduction patterns of two- and three-consonant clusters in SgEng, BrEng, Nigerian English and Chinese L2 English.
Anttila, Arto, Fong, T. Vivienne, Benuš, Stefan & Nycz, Jennifer (2008). Variation and opacity in Singapore English consonant clusters. Phonology 25(2): 181-216. doi
Analyzed patterns in sp-metathesis, i.e. the pronunciation of grasp forms as graps forms.
Wee, Lian-Hee (2008). Phonological patterns in the Englishes of Singapore and Hong Kong. World Englishes 27(3/4): 480-501. doi
The first published paper to identify a word-final pitch rise in Colloquial Singapore English and describe a stress-dependent system of tone assignment.
Lim, Lisa (2009). Revisiting English prosody: (Some) New Englishes as tone languages? English World-Wide 30(2): 97-118. doi
Argues for tone as a structural feature of Singapore English based on characteristic pitch patterns of particles, words and utterances.
Pillai, Stefanie, Zuraidah Mohd. Don, Knowles, Gerald & Tang, Jennifer (2010). Malaysian English: An instrumental analysis of vowel contrasts. World Englishes 29(2): 159-172. doi
This does not report on new Singapore English data, but it does draw comparisons.
Sharbawi, Salbrina & Deterding, David (2010). Rhoticity in Brunei English. English World-Wide 31(2): 121-137. doi
Finds more rhoticity in Brunei English than in Singapore English.
Tan, Rachel Siew Kuang & Low, Ee Ling (2010). How different are the monophthongs of Malay speakers of Malaysian and Singapore English? English World-Wide 31(2): 162-189. doi
Finds that ethnic Malay speakers in Singapore tend to maintain more long/short distinctions than those in Malaysia.
Ng, E-Ching (2011). Reconciling stress and tone in Singaporean English. In L. J. Zhang, R. Rubdy & L. Alsagoff (eds.), Asian Englishes: Changing perspectives in a globalised world (pp. 48-59). Singapore: Pearson Longman. pdf
An overview of the relationship between stress and tone in Colloquial Singaporean English.
Ng, E-Ching (2012). Chinese meets Malay meets English: Origins of the Singaporean English word-final high tone. International Journal of Bilingualism 16(1): 83-100. doi pdf
Traces the word-final pitch rise in Singaporean English to antecedents in Malay and Anglo-Indian English, with comparisons to Hokkien/Teochew and Cantonese.
Chong, Adam J. (2012). A preliminary model of Singaporean English intonational phonology. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 111: 41-62. pdf
Proposes three prosodic units above the word: Accentual Phrase, Intermediate Phrase and Intonational Phrase.

Papers on Grammar

See also the papers in Deterding et al (2003). Adam Brown has prepared a comprehensive bibiliography on the grammar of Singapore English in Chapter 17 of this volume.

Bao, Zhiming (1995). Already in Singapore English. World Englishes 14(2): 181-188. doi
Analyses two separate meanings for already in Singapore: perfective, indicating a completed action, and inchoative, indicating the beginning of an action. Claims that the inchoative meaning is derived from the Chinese le particle.
Ziegeler, Debra (1995). Diachronic factors in the grammaticalisation of counterfactual implicatures in Singaporean English. Language Sciences 17(4): 305-328. doi
Deals with the interaction between counterfactual meaning and the marking of past tense on statives in Singapore English.
Alsagoff, Lubna & Ho Chee Lick (1998). The relative clause in colloquial Singapore English. World Englishes 17(2): 127-138. doi
Analyses constructions with one as similar to a relative pronoun, and compares this construction with relative clauses with de in Chinese.
Bao, Zhiming & Wee, Lionel (1998). Until in Singapore English. World Englishes 17(1): 31-41. doi
Analyses the use of until in Singapore, where there is one meaning not found in British English, namely the continuation of the action beyond the specified timepoint. Analyses this as derived from the Chinese dao.
Bao, Zhiming & Wee, Lionel (1999). The passive in Singapore English. World Englishes 18(1): 1-11. doi
Analyses two forms of passive found in Singapore English: the kena passive that is derived from Malay, and the give passive that comes from Chinese.
Ziegeler, Debra (2000). Hypothetical modality: Grammaticalisation in an L2 Dialect. SILCS 51. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. toc
Incorporates earlier research on the relations between counterfactuality and lexical retention in grammaticalisation in Singapore English.
Gil, David (2003). English goes Asian: Number and (in)definiteness in the Singlish noun phrase. In F. Plank (ed.), Noun phrase structure in the languages of Europe (pp. 467-514). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Discusses number, determiners and possessives. Treats one as having two functions, reifier and pragmatic particle.
Wong, Jock (2003). The reduplication of Chinese names in Singapore English. RASK (19): 47-85. pdf html
Wong, Jock (2004b). The reduplication of nominal modifiers in Singapore English: A semantic and cultural interpretation. World Englishes 23(3): 339-354. doi
Ziegeler, Debra & Sarah Lee (2006). Causativity reduction in Singaporean English. English World-Wide 27(3): 265-294. doi
Deals with the use of direct causative constructions to express indirect causativity in Singapore English.
Ziegeler, Debra (2008). Grammaticalisation under Control: Towards a functional analysis of same-subject identity-sharing. Folia Linguistica 42(2): 401-451. pdf
Discusses the questions of same-subject control in modal constructions such as in Platt & Ho's (1984) example: The seeds can eat.
Kim, Chonghyuck, Qizhong Chang & Leslie Lee (2009). Number marking in Colloquial Singapore English. Journal of Cognitive Science 10(2): 149-172.
Sharma, Devyani (2009). Typological diversity in New Englishes. English World-Wide 30(2): 170-195. doi pdf
Compares Indian English and Singapore English imperfective marking (-ing) and copula use with reference to the substrate languages.
Lee, Nala Huiying, Ling Ai Ping & Nomoto, Hiroki (2009). Colloquial Singapore English got: Functions and substratal influences', World Englishes 28(3): 293-318. doi
Argues that Hokkien was a more important substrate than Malay varieties or Cantonese based on a comprehensive survey of got-constructions.
Nomoto, Hiroki and Nala Huiying Lee (2012). Realis, factuality and derived-level statives: Perspectives from the analysis of Singlish got. In C. Nishida and C. Russi (eds.), Building a Bridge between Linguistic Communities of the Old and the New World: Current Research in Tense, Aspect, Mood and Modality (pp. 219-239). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Argues that got is a realis modality marker.
Nomoto, Hiroki (2012). A general theory of bare "singular" kind terms. In Coyote Papers: Proceedings of the Poster Session of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (April, 2012), (pp. 90-99). Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Linguistics Circle. pdf
Ziegeler, Debra (2012). On the interaction of past tense and potentiality in Singaporean Colloquial English. Language Sciences 34(2): 229-251. doi
On the use of past tense with present time reference.
Hiramoto, Mie & Yosuke Sato (2012). Got-interrogatives and answers in Colloquial Singapore English. World Englishes 31(2): 198-207. doi
Responds to Nomoto & Lee, arguing that stativity is important for Singapore English got.
Sato, Yosuke (2012). Argument ellipsis in Colloquial Singapore English and the definite subject restriction at the syntax-discourse interface. lingbuzz/001470. pdf
Hiramoto, Mie (forthcoming). Substrate influence of sentence-final adverbs in Singapore English and Hong Kong English.

Papers on Particles

Richards, Jack & Tay, Mary W. J. (1977). The la particle in Singapore English. In W. Crewe (ed.), The English language in Singapore (pp. 141-156). Singapore: Eastern Universities Press.
First reference to lah to establish solidarity and support.
Kwan-Terry, Anna (1978). The meaning and the source of the la and the what particles in Singapore English. RELC Journal 9(2): 22-36.
Identifies two kinds of lah: stressed, indicating persuasion and conciliation; and unstressed, indicating impatience and annouyance.
Bell, R. & Ser, L. (1983) "Today la?" "Tomorrow lah": The LA particle in Singapore English. RELC Journal 14(2): 1-18.
Discusses long and short lah, with long version indicating power and social-distancing, and short version building solidarity.
Gupta, Anthea Fraser (1992). Contact features of Singapore Colloquial English. In B. Kingsley & H. Kwok (eds.), Sociolinguistics today: International perspectives (pp.323-345). London; New York: Routledge.
Includes the first careful comparison of one with possible substrate antecedents. Also see Gil (2003).
Low, Ee Ling & Deterding, David (2003). A corpus-based description of particles in spoken Singapore English. In D. Deterding, E. L. Low & A. Brown (eds.). The English language in Singapore: Research on grammar (pp. 58-66). Singapore: McGraw Hill.
Considers the lah and ah particles found in the NIECSSE Corpus under two roles: grammatical and pragmatic.
Besemeres, Mary & A. Wierzbicka, Anna (2003). Pragmatics and Cognition: The meaning of the particle lah in Singapore English. Pragmatics and Cognition 11(1): 3-38. doi
Describes lah with the formula "I think you can know what I want to say".
Wee, Lionel (2003). The birth of a particle: know in Colloquial Singapore English. World Englishes 22(1): 5-13. doi
Analysis of the use of know, comparing it with discourse particles such as la.
Wong, Jock (2004). The particles of Singapore English: A semantic and cultural interpretation. Journal of Pragmatics 36(4): 739-793. doi
Discusses the particles lah (low, rising and falling), what and meh.
Wong, Jock (2005). "Why you so Singlish one?" A semantic and cultural interpretation of the Singapore English particle one. Language in Society 34(2): 239-275. doi
Describes the particle one as presenting information with emphasis and a high level of confidence.
Ler, Soon Lay Vivien (2006). A relevance-theoretic approach to discourse particles in Singapore English. In K. Fischer (ed.), Approaches to Discourse Particles (pp. 149-166). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Focuses on lah and meh.
Lee, Tong King (2007). Pragmatic particles as speech strategies: The case of leh and its tonal variants in Colloquial Singapore English. California Linguistic Notes 32(1). pdf
Describes three tonal variants of leh in terms of the speaker's certainty and willingness to compromise.
Wee, Lionel (2010). The particle ya in Colloquial Singapore English. World Englishes 29(1): 45-58. doi
Argues that particle ya is distinct from affirmative yes/ya.
Tan, Angela (2010). Right in Singapore English. World Englishes 29(2): 234-256. doi
Doesn't exactly claim that right is a discourse particle, but argues that it should be analysed in a similar framework.
Hiramoto, Mie (2012). Pragmatics of the sentence-final uses of can in Colloquial Singapore English. Journal of Pragmatics 44(6/7): 890-906. doi
Argues that can is a discourse particle calqued from Chinese and Malay.
Kim, Chonghyuck & Wee, Lionel (2009). Resolving the paradox of Singapore English hor. English World-Wide 30(3): 241-261. doi
Argues that hor can both attenuate and boost illocutionary force, and in fact marks an asymmetry in authority between speaker and hearer.

Papers on Diglossia

Richards, Jack C. (1983). Singapore English: Rhetorical and communicative styles. In B. Kachru (ed.), The other tongue: English across cultures (pp. 154-167). Oxford, Pergammon Press.
The article that first discussed the concept of diglossia in the Singapore context.
Gupta, Anthea Fraser (1989). Singapore Colloquial English and Standard English, Singapore Journal of Education 10(2): 33-39.
One of the first papers to develop the concept of diglossia in Singapore. See also pages 7 to 9 in Gupta (1994).
Pakir, Anne (1991). The range and depth of English-knowing bilinguals in Singapore. World Englishes 10(2): 167-179. doi
Includes the original version of Pakir's expanding triangles model of variation in English in Singapore. A presentation of this model can also be found in Pakir's paper in Teng & Ho (1995). This model is an alternative to the diglossic model, suggesting continuous variation that depends on clines of formality and proficiency.
Deterding, David (1998). Approaches to diglossia in the classroom: The middle way. REACT Issue No. 2 November 1998: 18-23. html
A brief introduction to the diglossic status of Singapore English. Includes some advice for teachers.
Bao, Zhiming & Hong, Huaqing (2006). Diglossia and register variation in Singapore English. World Englishes 25(1): 105-114. doi
Focusing on already and also, finds some limited support for a diglossic approach to Singapore English.
Leimgruber, Jakob R. E. (2012). Singapore English: An indexical approach. World Englishes 31(1): 1-14. doi pdf
Argues against a rigid diglossic approach based on a careful corpus study, because characteristic features of the high and low varieties are very often combined.

Papers on the Rhythm of Singapore English

The papers listed here only cover the rhythm of Singapore English. A more general bibiliography on rhythm is the bibliography prepared by Peter Roach.

Brown, Adam (1988). The staccato effect in the pronunciation of English in Malaysia and Singapore. In J. Foley (ed.), New Englishes: The case of Singapore (pp. 115-128). Singapore: Singapore University Press.
An early overview of the features that may contribute to the perception that the rhythm of Singapore English is different from that of British English.
Low, Ee Ling, Grabe, Esther & Nolan, Francis (2000). Quantitative characterisations of speech rhythm: syllable-timing in Singapore English. Language & Speech 43(4).
Describes one way to measure differences in rhythm, based on the duration of vowels.
Deterding, David (2001). The measurement of rhythm: A comparison of Singapore and British English. Journal of Phonetics 29: 217-230.
Describes one way to measure differences in rhythm, based on the duration of syllables.
Low, Ee Ling (2010). The acoustic reality of the Kachruvian circles: A rhythmic perspective. World Englishes 29(3): 394-405. doi
Finds that Chinese English is intermediate between Singapore and British English in terms of rhythm.

Speech Therapy

Gupta, Anthea Fraser & Chandler, Helen (1993). Paediatric speech and language therapy referral in Singapore: Implications for multilingual language disability. European Journal of Disorders of Communication 28: 311-317.
Considers the state of speech therapy in Singapore in the early 1990's. Observes that referral rates to speech therapists are very low.
Gupta, Anthea Fraser, Brebner, Chris & Yeo, Helen Chandler (1998). Developmental assessments in speech-language therapy in Singapore. Asia Pacific Journal of Speech Language and Hearing, 3(1): 17-28
Discusses the problem of the absence of standardised tests for assessing language development in Singapore, and proposes tests that might be used.

Dialect Perception

Chia Boh Peng & Brown, Adam (2002). Singaporeans' reactions to Estuary English. English Today 18: 33-38.
Reports on the impressions of Singaporean listeners on the friendliness and intelligence of a speaker of Estuary English, the style of English common among young people in Britain today.
Deterding, David (2005). Listening to Estuary English in Singapore. TESOL Quarterly 39(3): 425-440.
A study of how comprehensible Singaporeans find Estuary English.
Cavallaro, Francesco & Ng Bee Chin (2009). Between status and solidarity in Singapore. World Englishes 28(2): 143-159. doi
Surprisingly, found that Singaporeans gave lower solidarity ratings for Singapore Colloquial English than to Singapore Standard English.
Tan, Ying Ying (2012). To r or not to r: social correlates of /ɹ/ in Singapore English. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 218: 1-24. doi pdf
Examines postvocalic, intrusive and linking r in relation to levels of education and socioeconomic status.

Miscellaneous and Unclassified

See also various sections of the index of NIE Academic Exercises.

Wierzbicka, Anna (2003b). Singapore English: A semantic and cultural perspective. In Multilingua 22: 327-366. doi
Wong, Jock (2004c). Cultural scripts, ways of speaking and perceptions of personal autonomy: Anglo English vs. Singapore English. Intercultural Pragmatics 1(2), [special issue on cultural scripts]: 231-248. doi
Wong, Jock (2005b). Singapore English: A semantic and cultural interpretation. Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University.
Wong, Jock (2006a). Social hierarchy in the 'speech culture' of Singapore. In C. Goddard (ed.), Ethnopragmatics: Understanding discourse in cultural context (pp. 99-125). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Wong, Jock (2006b). Contextualizing aunty in Singapore English. World Englishes 25(3/4): 451-466. doi
Wong, Jock (2007). East meets West, or does it really? In M. Besemeres & A. Wierzbicka (eds.), Translating lives: Living with two languages and cultures (pp. 70-82). Queensland University Press.
Wee, Lionel (2007). Singapore English X-self and ownself. World Englishes 26(3): 360-372. doi
Wong, Jock (2008). Anglo English and Singapore English tags: Their meanings and cultural significance. Pragmatics and Cognition 16(1): 92-121. doi
Sato, Yosuke (2012). Argument ellipsis in Colloquial Singapore English and the anti-agreement hypothesis. LingBuzz/001825
Wong, Jock O. (Planned for 2014). The Culture of Singapore English. web